Formal writing in any language is difficult – even for native speakers! Reporting language – which is generally a verb + another part of speech – can help you introduce and discuss ideas that you want to integrate into your own writing.
1. VERBS THAT INTRODUCE A QUOTATION OR PARAPHRASE INFORMATION
…reports on + noun phrase
Example: In her article “English is Great,” Jane Smith reports on the popularity of online English classes.
Other reporting language phrases that fit here:
…examines + noun phrase
…proposes + noun phrase
…discusses + noun phrase
…points out + noun phrase or noun clause
…states + noun clause
…says + noun clause
…explains that / how/ why + noun clause
…discusses + noun phrase or +how/why +noun clause
…adds that + noun clause
…concludes that + noun phrase
2. VERBS THAT TELL THE READER THE SOURCE IS PRESENTING AN OPINION FOLLOWED BY REASONING
…argues that + noun clause
Example: Jones argues that the popularity of online language classes is due to busy schedules.
…believes that + noun clause
…maintains that + noun clause
3. VERBS THAT TELL THE READER THAT THE SOURCE IS GIVING AN OPINION OR PRESENTING A FACT THAT COULD BE DISPUTED
…asserts that + noun clause
Example: Smith asserts that English is a simple language to learn.
…claims that + noun clause
4. VERBS THAT EXPRESS AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT AMONG SOURCES
…disputes + noun phrase
Example: She disputed his assertion.
…disagrees that + noun clause
…disagrees, pointing out that + noun clause
…acknowledges that + noun clause
…agrees that + noun clause
…agrees, adding + noun clause
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